Country reports on early retirement for difficult jobs

In Germany, there are almost no special regulations for workers in arduous or hazardous jobs.

Dr. WSW – 01/2017

The European Social Policy Network has published 35 country reports on retirement regimes for workers in arduous or hazardous jobs. The Network was founded in 2014 and provides the EU Commission with independent information, analyses and expertise.  


The German report was written by Professor Gerhard Bäcker from the University Essen-Duisburg. In contrast to many other countries, there are almost no special regulations in Germany for early retirement for particularly difficult jobs. Apart from two negligible exceptions, there are no provisions or regulations in either the general social protection system or in the pension and retirement systems that particularly refer to arduous or hazardous jobs (AHJ) or to particular categories of workers. AHJ workers are treated like all other workers in the general pension system. Therefore, there is no legal definition or a list of special categories for AHJ.  


Germany’s report and those of other countries can be found by searching online .